Let’s see how we can view and assign IP addresses to a Microsoft Windows 10 PC. First, I’m going to enter ethernet settings, and then we’ll go into Change adapter options. And here you see I have one active ethernet interface. I’m going to right-click on it, say Properties. From here I’m going to say Internet Protocol Version 4.
IP address location – Configuring and verifying
We’ll take a look at Version 6 in just a moment. But here we’re going to take a look at Version 4. And we click on Properties. Now right now there’s no information to be seen and the reason is we’re dynamically obtaining this information from a server that gives us our IP address and subnet mask and default gateway in the DNS server.
So we don’t see those, but if we wanted to assign those different values we would say use the following IP address or DNS server and we would input whatever those values are for us. Now let’s take a look at what these different values mean. An IP address is going to uniquely identify a device on the network.
When two devices are talking to one another they’re pointing to one another’s IP address. The subnet mask, that’s going to draw that dividing line between the host portion of the address and the network portion. So we know what street number we’re on and we know what house number we’re in. The default gateway, that’s a router.
It’s the IP address of a router that knows how to forward packets based on destination IP address information. It knows how to get to the rest of the world hopefully, and finally the DNS server.
That’s a server that can translate an easy-to-remember name into a harder-to-remember IP address. So we don’t have to memorize the IP addresses of everywhere we’re going on the Internet. But from here we don’t really see what those IP addresses are.
How do we actually see the information that’s been dynamically assigned?
To do that we’re going to go to the Command Prompt. Let’s type in cmd to hop out to the Command Prompt, and we can give the command ipconfig and this tells us, here’s the IP version 4 address of this network adapter, it’s 10.35.3.53.
And we see the subnet mask, we see the IP address of that router that’s going to get us out to the rest of the world, our default gateway. And we even see a link-local address for IP version 6. Now there’s something we don’t see here though.
Oftentimes for troubleshooting we also need to know an interface card’s MAC address. That’s a media access control address. It’s a 48-bit address that’s burned in to the network interface card when it was manufactured.
In order to see that information we’re going to give that ipconfig command again, but this time we’re going to do a space forward slash all. And when we see Physical Address, that’s that 48-bit MAC address written in hexadecimal notation.
Well that’s a look at how we can configure and verify our IPv4 and IPv6 configuration on a Microsoft Windows 10 PC.
Now that we’ve seen how to configure and verify IP addressing in a Windows environment, let’s take a look at a Mac.
First let’s go under the Apple menu and select System Preferences. From there we’re going to go into Network. And we can see right here in the graphical interface for our ethernet network interface card, we can see the IP address, the subnet mask, the router, we see the DNS servers, and we’re using DHCP for our automatic address configuration. We could do it manually, we could drop down that menu and say I want to do a manual configuration.
Or if we want to get advanced, we could click the Advanced button and manually configure IPv6, IPv4 addressing. We could set our own DNS servers as well. We can get some information from the command line, let’s see how we do that.
We’re going to go into Spotlight search and I’m going to say terminal, and from the terminal screen we’re going to give a similar command that we gave in Windows, it’s a little bit different, we’re going to say, instead of ipconfig, we’re going to do an ifconfig command. It gives us similar results.
Let’s go take a look at that ethernet interface, en0, we can see our 48-bit MAC address, we see our IPv6 link-local address, and we also see our IPv4 address and the subnet mask in hexadecimal notation.
And that’s a look at how we can configure and verify IP address configuration on a Mac.